appraisals in a broad sense are the continued method of evaluating individuals
on their behaviour and performance at work with the intent of helping improve
them, thus increasing their job satisfaction and adversely effecting the business.
Performance Appraisal Formats
- Prose/essay - A
written document stating strengths, weakness and potential. Faults with this
include time consumption as well as no control over areas appraised.
- Critical incident
- Recording of events by appraiser. An incident is critical when it illustrates
what the employers has done or failed to do - resulting in abnormal success
or failure. This type of recording is more fact than opinion.
- Forced Choice
- Choice of one of many options to describe main characteristics of individual
(i.e. a multi-choice answer). Common problem is the reduction of many traits
to just one answer.
- Forced Distribution
- Forced to assign a certain proportion of all workers to each particular
group. Similar to above. This method is based on the assumption that the distribution
of employees’ performance can always be allocated in predetermined directions.
- Ranking Method -
Used to rank each individual against others (i.e. you are rated 10, he is
rated 8 etc.). Useful when you have several reports from multiple assessors
but does not allow for individuals to pinpoint their strengths or weaknesses
for improvement. This system works very much on global judgments of performance
- Graphics Performance
Scales - These permit the appraiser to rate and individual along a multi-point
scale for each characteristic being assessed. These scales can be supplemented
by specific comments so that the appraiser can avoid the difficulties inherent
in the standard layout of the appraisal form.
- Self-Appraisal -
This system is usually developed with other such systems of appraisal. This
system lacks from the authoritarian appraisal methods.
- Goal Appraisal Methods
- Often named "management by objective" such schemes place the
appraisal and the appraisee in a situation where mutual agreement on objectives
is required, and the focus is on achievement.
Problems with Appraisals
- Halo effect -
One trait of the individual effects the others bias. Graphic forms are susceptible
to this problem.
- Central tendency
- Supervisors tend to play it safe and rate everyone generally so that they
do not get questioned about their judgment.
- Some supervisors constantly under or over rate their staff.
to work correctly, top management must support the scheme. The paper work involved
must not be over bearing, cause it may just not be looked at or simply put aside
(detracting from importance of appraisal). All reasons for the appraisals must
be followed up till the end, otherwise they will be ignored. All staff must
be trained in the area of appraisal so that each knows what is expected of them
- if this is not so, the traditional dysfunction will inevitably occur and a
lack of commitment and acceptance will take place. The appraisals should never
become ritualistic. Their purpose must be reviewed, and each person should understand
and believe in why they are being performed. If this is not the situation, it
will become a hindrance, and only prove to cause more problems than it solves.
By Evan Sycamnias